News

Brooklyn Muslims document their past and present in new oral history project

Left to right, Hassan Ben Jaafar of the musical group Innov Gnawa, Liz H. Strong and Karim Ababou record an oral history interview in February 2018 about Ben Jaafar’s music and his life in Brooklyn. Photo by Diane Duggan

(RNS) – Zaheer Ali has spent over a decade living and working in Brooklyn as a Muslim.

But over the past year, as he put together an ambitious archive of local Muslim voices, he’s learned a lot about the lives of the diverse communities who call the New York City borough their home.

As the Brooklyn Historical Society’s oral historian, Ali launched the organization’s yearlong flagship project, Muslims in Brooklyn, last fall. The project, which features 50 interviews with local Muslims, is going public this week.

“Brooklyn is a gathering place for Muslims from all over the world,” Ali told Religion News Service. “This project reinforced the multidimensionality of these communities, that we should not collapse or flatten the experiences of Muslims.”

The interviews, ranging in length from 90 minutes to three hours, will be collected in a permanent, searchable digital archive paired with public educational and art programs.

The participants come from a variety of ethnic backgrounds – including African-American, Yemeni, Palestinian, Moroccan, Kashmiri, Bangladeshi, Tatar, Haitian and Puerto Rican – and from 18 different Brooklyn neighborhoods. They range from 24 to 74 years of age, from unobservant to conservative Muslim and everything in between, and represent occupations including entrepreneurs, community organizers, clerics, medical professionals, homemakers, business owners, laborers, educators, musicians, artists and more.

“An Ummah, In Conversation” is an illustration for the Muslims in Brooklyn project. Image by Mohammed Fayaz

Interviewees include a few better-known names in “Muslim Cool” author Su’ad Abdul-Khabeer, Bangladeshi Feminist Collective founding member Shahana Hanif, 9/11 first responder Stacey Salimah-Bell and Asad Dandia, a Columbia University graduate student who was a plaintiff in the 2013 class-action suit against New York Police Department surveillance.

About 22 percent of America’s total Muslim population lives in New York City, the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding estimates, and among the city’s five boroughs, Brooklyn has the most mosques – nearly 100. That’s one of the highest concentrations of mosques in the country.

Brooklyn’s Muslim history is as deep as it is dense, serving as home to one of the country’s oldest mosques, the Brooklyn Muslim Mosque. It was established in the borough’s Williamsburg neighborhood by a local community of Eastern European Muslims, who in 1907 founded the Lithuanian Tatar society – later called the American Mohammedan Society, and now recognized as America’s oldest surviving Islamic congregation.

Another significant historical landmark, known as the State Street Mosque, is based in Brooklyn Heights. Founded in 1939 by Sheikh Daoud Ahmed Faisal and his wife, Sayedah Khadijah Faisal, the mosque is formally known as the Islamic Mission of America. It was “an early spiritual nurturing ground” for African-American Sunni Muslims, as well as for many immigrants who were arriving in the mid- to late 20th century, Ali explained.

Brooklyn also boasts Masjid Abdul Muhsi Khalifah, one of the mosques that Malcolm X founded while part of the Nation of Islam, in Bedford-Stuyvesant. And local Muslim musicians like rapper Mos Def have also played critical roles pushing the boundaries of art.

“Muslim Woman in Brooklyn making her Salat (prayer),” 2007. Photo © Chester Higgins Jr./chesterhiggins.com

Muslims’ contributions to New York City are a matter of public record. In July, the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published the second edition of its Muslims for American Progress impact report, quantifying Muslims’ contributions to New York City and pairing the statistics with portraits and personal narratives from more than 80 of New York’s most prominent Muslim voices.

ISPU measured Muslims’ contributions to life in New York in everything from civics to medicine to philanthropy to education. Two years ago, about 770,000 Muslims resided in New York City, making up about 9 percent of the city’s population that year. In New York City, Muslims make up over 12 percent of all pharmacists, 9 percent of all doctors, 11 percent of engineers, almost 40 percent of taxi drivers and more than 57 percent of street food vendors.

Ali’s project reflects this diversity. His team spent months working with communities to choose their interviewees who would help capture three ideas: that Muslims have a long history in the U.S., in New York and in Brooklyn; that Muslims represent multiple ethnicities and nationalities; and that, in many ways, they have shaped Brooklyn as much as Brooklyn has shaped them.

The project was something Ali had been hoping to do since he began working with the Brooklyn Historical Society in 2015, and the anxieties of the political moment made it feel more critical than ever.

“In the backdrop of this project was this really ugly rhetoric about Muslims, these policy-based and legislative attacks on Muslims and this rise in anti-Muslim bias incidents,” he said. Indeed, after the Supreme Court issued its ruling in favor of the White House’s travel ban, the Brooklyn Historical Society’s president published a statement underscoring the organization’s commitment to highlighting the stories and contributions of local Muslims.

The interviews reveal a resilience that’s inspiring, he said.

Zaheer Ali, oral historian at Brooklyn Historical Society and project director for Muslims in Brooklyn. Photo by Maggie Shannon

But the “intimate conversations” within the oral histories also “challenge Muslim exceptionalism” by simultaneously exposing the vibrancy and mundaneness of Muslims’ lives, Ali explained. The narrators discuss universal experiences: their childhood, going to school, their crushes, the fights they had with their parents as teens, their concerns about their children’s futures.

“So we see that Muslims are certainly very concerned by Islamophobia, but they don’t define themselves by it,” he said. That is the unique value of oral history as a medium for this project: It allows communities to document their experiences in their own voices, giving them the space to speak freely without being cut and framed by editors and curators.

The project kicked off with a free public listening party Thursday (Dec. 6) at the Brooklyn Historical Society’s office in Brooklyn Heights. Ali said he hopes the audio compilation whets listeners’ appetite to learn more.

“This is a lot of audio, but there’s still no way to summarize the totality of Brooklyn Muslims’ experiences in 50 interviews,” he noted.

It may be less accessible than other digital products in the short term – it is not so easy to consume as, say, a YouTube video or podcast – but as technology evolves, the Muslims in Brooklyn archive is designed to stand the test of time and remain a resource for educators, scholars and media producers.

“If we want to change the narrative, then we need to change the information available to the people who write those narratives,” Ali noted.

About the author

Aysha Khan

Aysha Khan is a Boston-based journalist reporting on American Muslims and millennial faith for RNS. Her newsletter, Creeping Sharia, curates news coverage of Muslim communities in the U.S. Previously, she was the social media editor at RNS.

62 Comments

Click here to post a comment

  • Thanks for this. I look forward to listening to some of these as time permits. Audio voice is a better medium than audio and video. Most of us don’t really know that, but just listening to people is better for learning than watching and listening at the same time.

  • “Muslims’ contributions to New York City are a matter of public record.” Yes, they destroyed the twin towers and 3000 people. Look at the real estate cost now

  • You bigoted ignorant scumbag. None of those terrorists came from NYC or even this country. Scores of the Muslims of those neighborhoods were victims of that attack. It was an attack upon them as much as it was every other NYC resident.

    “Look at the real estate cost now”

    Some of the most expensive in the nation. After 9/11 Lower Manhattan became a residential neighborhood again. Leave it to a Canadian to be completely clueless about NYC

  • To the usual haters, one must keep this in mind:
    1. There are few distinctively “Muslim” neighborhoods in Brooklyn outside of a few blocks in Boerum Hill known as “Little Baghdad”. Most are mixed and intermingled with other religious groups living peaceably.

    2. These are not slums or ghettos like you see in Continental Europe but working class to middle class areas. Upwardly mobile.

    3. American Muslims have done more to thwart terrorists in their midst than profiling and spying on their communities
    https://warisboring.com/american-muslims-turn-in-lots-of-terrorists/

    4. ISIS and company want panicky people to lump all Muslims with them. Even though many of them here are those who came fleeing Islamicist repression and terrorism.

  • The hatreds and bigotries of Islam are written in their Koran and hadiths for all to read;
    and there is no allahaha…

  • I am a New Yorker, you don’t get to insult its people with such a vile statement and expect it to go without remark. You defamed the residents of it and the victims of that attack. You should be ashamed of yourself.

  • I’m wondering if you have actually “read” the Koran? Or you are just here parroting what you’ve been told by other bigots and reacting to a few passages taken out of context?

  • You told me you were. I guess that wasn’t true.

    That is good. I hate to besmirching the good people of up north. They produce such good beer and comedians.

  • You are a New Yorker – an achievement to be celebrated because of the knowledge that living there grants you. (sarcasm off)
    Now for some reality. The muslim brought down the twin towers and killed over 3000 people, including firemen and police and innocents who went in to help the people. The diseases some acquired through their kindness in helping is atrocious and they were the lucky ones who lived.
    You can continue to play the pathetic liberal and support the Muslim They cannot even get along with each other.
    Some of us went through horrors through that period, Some muslim may be nice people, but, that said, if they knew about their religion, they would be ashamed.
    It has been said that muslim don’t even know their religion because it is taught in the original languages and they refuse to translate it to any other language. Half, if not more of those innocent people don’t even know of the hate they represent by calling themselves Muslim.
    So sit back and enjoy New York Spud. I pray you are not next on their list.

  • For some actual reality.

    In an article about New York’s Muslim population, to bring up 9/11 in a proper and not bigoted context would involve not blaming them for the attack but recognizing them as victims along with the rest of the city. Much like attributing neo-nazi violence to Christians. By your argument Christians have killed thousands of Americans in acts of terror for generations. So all Christian communities are suspect and part of

    “You can continue to play the pathetic liberal and support the Muslim They cannot even get along with each other.”

    “The Muslim”

    So you are a stooge for ISIS. Following their claims that all of Islam follows or must follow their dictates. It all flows from that wildly stupid assumption. One which works well for terrorist agendas. ISIS has a great asset in fools like you.

    “Some of us went through horrors through that period”

    BUT NOT YOU.

    Yes I went through 9/11 first hand. You did not. I can speak from experience.
    You are talking out of your posterior.You are merely a bigoted opportunist trying to glom off the incident and furthering the agenda of the attackers.

    BTW, have you ever even seen the neighborhoods described in the article? I work down in that area most of the week. You are full of crap here.

    You have this ridiculous need to make wild generalizations of the faith of 1.2 billion people. One you clearly don’t know squat about beyond what you see on hate sites.

    There is no argument which can be made that “____ religion is evil” which isn’t bigoted ignorant garbage.

    You can continue to be called a scumbag for insulting and defaming the residents of the city I grew up in and work in on a regular basis.

  • So you can play the concerned liberal by saying ‘as Christians killed in the past, it’s ok for the muslim today,’ That my friend, is bigotry.
    Secondly the article was about things they have done for New York. The twin towers were “done”by the Muslim – get used to it
    Also Spud, honey, if you have to resort to attacking me, then you have no argument.

  • Bigotry is defaming the victims of terrorism and supporting the aims of their murderers.

    As is making wild generalizations of 1.2 billion people based on your views of a given religion.

    You are not only a bigot, but a thin skinned one who doesn’t like being on the receiving end of their own garbage.

    “The twin towers were “done”by the Muslim – get used to it”

    “The Muslim” is not a real thing. You are a bigot and a stooge for terrorists.

  • yawn….the further you go with this, the more I think – Spud, run along and tell someone who cares what you think

  • Once again for perusal by all Muslims:

    From the studies of Armstrong, Rushdie, Hirsi Ali, Richardson and Bayhaqi————–

    The Five Steps To Deprogram 1400 Years of Islamic Myths:

    ( –The Steps take less than two minutes to finish- simply amazing, two minutes to bring peace and rationality to over one billion lost souls- Priceless!!!)

    Are you ready?

    Using “The 77 Branches of Islamic “faith” a collection compiled by Imam Bayhaqi as a starting point. In it, he explains the essential virtues that reflect true “faith” (iman) through related Qur’anic verses and Prophetic sayings.” i.e. a nice summary of the Koran and Islamic beliefs.

    The First Five of the 77 Branches:

    “1. Belief in Allah”

    aka as God, Yahweh, Zeus, Jehovah, Mother Nature, etc. should be added to your self-cleansing neurons.

    “2. To believe that everything other than Allah was non-existent. Thereafter, Allah Most High created these things and subsequently they came into existence.”

    Evolution and the Big Bang or the “Gib Gnab” (when the universe starts to recycle) are more plausible and the “akas” for Allah should be included if you continue to be a “creationist”.

    “3. To believe in the existence of angels.”

    A major item for neuron cleansing. Angels/devils are the mythical creations of ancient civilizations, e.g. Hittites, to explain/define natural events, contacts with their gods, big birds, sudden winds, protectors during the dark nights, etc. No “pretty/ugly wingy thingies” ever visited or talked to Mohammed, Jesus, Mary or Joseph or Joe Smith. Today we would classify angels as fairies and “tinker bells”. Modern devils are classified as the demons of the demented.

    “4. To believe that all the heavenly books that were sent to the different prophets are true. However, apart from the Quran, all other books are not valid anymore.”

    Another major item to delete. There are no books written in the spirit state of Heaven (if there is one) just as there are no angels to write/publish/distribute them. The Koran, OT, NT etc. are simply books written by humans for humans.

    Prophets were invented by ancient scribes typically to keep the uneducated masses in line. Today we call them fortune tellers.

    Prophecies are also invalidated by the natural gifts of Free Will and Future.

    “5. To believe that all the prophets are true. However, we are commanded to follow the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) alone.”

    Mohammed spent thirty days “fasting” (the Ramadan legend) in a hot cave before his first contact with Allah aka God etc. via a “pretty wingy thingy”. Common sense demands a neuron deletion of #5. #5 is also the major source of Islamic violence i.e. turning Mohammed’s “fast, hunger-driven” hallucinations into horrible reality for unbelievers.

    Walk these Five Steps and we guarantee a complete recovery from your Islamic ways!!!!

    Unfortunately, there are not many Muslim commentators/readers on this blog so the “two-minute” cure is not getting to those who need it. If you have a Muslim friend, send him a copy and help save the world.

    Analogous steps are available at your request for deprogramming the myths of Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Paganism..

  • That’s interesting, I have Muslim friends who must be practicing their faith incorrectly. They are nothing similar to what your expertise claims they must be. I can’t help but wonder who is the charlatan here?

  • You are parroting ISIS propaganda and furthering their ends. They love stooges like you. People who attack the one thing they can’t deal with.

    Democracy loving Muslims who are prospering here. Like the people in this article.

    You make their job easier by promoting discrimination and attacks on our dearly loved freedoms. Terrorists love such conditions to build support networks.

    BTW repeating crap from hate sites isn’t going to make me believe you know a damn thing about the religion you are attacking.

  • There are 70+ sects which all say that same thing about each other…. time you read their hadiths and surahs, don’t forget Dawah and the concepts of Hijrah and Taqqiya….
    (are your muslims the domesticated type as is common now with most christians in the modern civilisations…?)

  • Thank you giving us the latest in Pro-ISIS propaganda.

    You can receive your check either by mail or pick it up at the local office in Dubai.

  • Stupid and arrogant in your lack of knowledge of Islam, with your infantile ISIS quips (there have always been many ISIS groups throughout Islam’s history – a continuous line of ‘Inquisition’ type groups.
    what are you ? some religious nut – how about you prove your god, or have it smite me down….,

  • Yes I get it, you are another one of those derps who repeats garbage they see on a hate site and expects them to be considered experts on the Muslim faith. There is nothing novel about it. I am not going to pretend you know squat about it.

    Fools like you are great stooges for Islamicist terrorists. Repeating their propaganda ad nauseum.

    You get the quips you deserve, based on the infantile bigoted nonsense you are spewing which happens to serve the interests of terrorists.

    They actually want fools like you to attack Muslims living in democracies and in the case of those in Brooklyn, doing OK by themselves living peaceably with a variety of people.

    https://warisboring.com/the-islamic-states-assault-on-the-gray-zone/
    ” For Daesh’s apocalyptic ideology, a pluralistic and inclusive society is repulsive and must be destroyed. To further that goal, the group seeks to widen the differences which exist, by definition, in a pluralistic community.”

    “what are you ? some religious nut – how about you prove your god, or have it smite me down….,”

    Nope. Just someone with a low tolerance for terrorist enabling bigots.

  • Why are you so adamant in defending this most vile of the already vile religions –
    Are you one of those god believers who also refuse to prove their gods…?…!
    or just a bleeding heart lib with no grasp on reality…just utopian idealism.

    If you cannot see the lies and violence initiated by this particular religion, you have major mental problems. The history of Islam’s violence has been constant for 1440 years!

  • Any of you defenders of the faith ever lived in their countries – under their laws and customs (like FGM)
    ??

  • That was incredibly stupid and nothing more than flinging insults.

    I will only say this twice here:

    There is no argument which states : “____ religion is evil” that will not come off as ignorant bigoted ranting. It makes no difference what the religion is. It just can’t be taken seriously. (Although the answer “all” seems to have some merit there once in a while)

    Anyone who expects to be taken seriously when making wild generalizations for literally over a billion people is a complete and total m0r0n.

    “The history of Islam’s violence has been constant for 1440 years!”

    So they have a few centuries behind Christianity. Another religion whose adherents are known for violence, conquest, genocide and not getting along with members of different sects.

    BTW the article seems to undermine your premise here. We have a century of Muslims living in Brooklyn peaceably. I guess your rant doesn’t account for such things. You can go p1ss off now.

  • Still choosing to be deluded!!

    Try reading up about Islam including the news from their nations, try Malaysia and Indonesia, supposedly liberal Islam, to see their hypocrisy.
    Try living in their lands as I have, with them, teaching them, living in their neighbourhoods, 15+ years, married one!!!
    Yeah, I have forgotten more about Islam than you will ever learn, especially from your uber-left wing sources.

    We have had many nations with a hundred years of Moslem immigrants, eg US and Australia, and you will note that they too were escaping ‘from’ their own religion/sects, which has now brought over its fire-brand clerics, and radicals, and also noted is that Islamic problems are multiplying…

    (you obviously have never read their hadiths and surahs – they are quite clear in all the languages)

  • If they are ‘liberal’ in any way, ie incorrectly, – Yes! They are considered ‘bad’ Muslims by their own!!!

  • However, there are English translations. But I am aware that the Arabic is considered “the” Koran.

  • It is more than that.

    Muslims believe that the Koran is literally the written of God, verbatim.

    Any other version is a paraphrase, a pale imitation.

  • Doubt it.

    Everyone who comes here making the same claims says that. In the end all they do is quote hate sites.

    Like everyone else who makes the bonehead argument “___ religion is evil”. Which includes:
    1. Mormons and Evangelicals taking pot shots at each other
    2. Seventh Day Adventists describing Catholic dogma
    3. Neo-Nazis describing the Talmud

  • Try reading about Muslims in America, like in this article m0r0n. Try living in their neighborhoods here. I do.

    Have you ever seen the Brooklyn neighborhoods in this article? I work in them 2-4 days a week.

    They are much different than anything you will see in Malaysia and Indonesia. Two countries which have no handle on religious freedom and barely any on democracy.

    “and also noted is that Islamic problems are multiplying…”

    Just like how my next door neighbor keeps demanding I convert to Islam and threatening my family if I don’t. Oh wait no he doesn’t. He and his family are rather friendly people who apparently know the best little shops in Jersey City.

    Muslim neighborhoods in the US tend to be fairly well off and in some cases fairly upwardly mobile, as is the case in Brooklyn. They aren’t the multigenerational slums/ghettos of Paris.

    “married one!!”

    LMAO! So this is all just personal moaning to get back at the ex.

    Funny.

  • You ignore the peril that this religious ideology threatens civilisation;
    that is just irresponsible bordering on stupidity in the name of humanism (or whatever your agenda is…)

  • Amazing how you choose to stay at that low level of logic and learning about this religion and the methods of religions.
    (you defend the American muslims but excuse the others’ behaviours? WOW!!
    Definitely an agenda!!!)
    Now you can watch these American Muslims start being radicalised as is the next stage in their Hijrah (LEARN IT!),
    and as is happening in the EU, the UK and in Australia, also countries with a handle on ‘religious freedom’ and democracy.

    You are not just ignorant of this situation – you are irresponsible to discount what is observable over the many generations of the religions!!

    [and then you try creating your own scenario about me personally?? Pathetic!!)

  • I can’t help it if your spiel is overdone hackwork that has been seen here dozens of times. All people making the same silly claims and the same nonsense arguments.

    They all claim to be experts on Islam (or whatever religion they hate).

    They all make wild generalizations about multitudes in said religion.

    They all ignore America’s long history of not having sectarian violence.

    They all parrot the most extreme rhetoric of the people they despise and claim all of them believe that.

    They all claim to have personal inside knowledge, but really don’t

    “(you defend the American muslims but excuse the others’ behaviours? WOW!! ”

    Nope. I defend Americans, Period. I defend the American way of life. I defend American values.
    Things you seem to have little use for.

    “and as is happening in the EU, the UK and in Australia, also countries with a handle on ‘religious freedom’ and democracy.”

    Funny how all the places you just referenced have state established churches or long histories of discrimination against immigrants. They don’t really do religious freedom as we do. With free exercise of religion and the separation of church and state..

    You still can’t address how things are here, because you have no clue about them, no desire to find out and because they turn your canned narrative to crap.

    “You are not just ignorant of this situation – you are irresponsible to discount what is observable over the many generations of the religions!!”

    Typical hysteria. Somehow upholding American values and freedom of religion is dangerous!!!
    Nope. I clearly observe fools who are so blinded by bigotry, they will attack what makes their society worth preserving.

  • Typical hysteric who is somehow threatened by peaceful immigrant communities, religious freedom and the American way of life.

    Typical ISIS stooge. You have been doing their work in a satisfactory fashion. Really making that extra effort to further their goals.

  • Amazing, in the face of actual data and facts that you continue to defend that which has no defence!!

    Feel free to stay stupid – the People in the EU are regretting the self same stupidity that you have chosen to delude yourself with ( defending American values – what crap!!)

  • We saw modernisation in most of the Islamic nations during the 50’s, 60’s and 70’s, the people were free, albeit often under dictators, but the clerics were subdued;
    The clerics have re-established their historical and traditional controls, plus the growth of major extremists like the Taliban, Al Qaeda and IS.

    As the Muslims migrate out of these religious tyrannies – the clerics follow!!!

  • “As the Muslims migrate out of these religious tyrannies – the clerics follow!!!”

    As seen by the radicalized enclaves and mass support of Islamicism we see all over the US in Los Angeles, Brooklyn, Detroit, Minneapolis… Oh wait, we don’t see that at all. Quite the opposite.

    As I said previously:

    3. American Muslims have done more to thwart terrorists in their midst than profiling and spying on their communities
    https://warisboring.com/american-muslims-turn-in-lots-of-terrorists/

    Also see this article. You are full of crap.

  • Boring, cherry picking, ignoring the reality in fact, and this sort of stupidity is imperilling our civilisations!
    You will be in the front lines and shot in the back by your Islamic mates…

    (justs keeps it up like all the deluded religionists)

  • What facts or actual data? You throw out generalized bull and cite to dictatorships and places which treat immigrants of all stripes like crap and repeat ISIS propaganda. When called out on it, you just hurl insults rather than address it.

    You aren’t giving us some fantastic revelation and warning that must be heeded. You are giving us canned bigoted garbage we see all the time.

    This article itself refutes everything you have said. I sincerely doubt you have ever stepped foot in an American Muslim neighborhood. Let alone had a clue as to how they are.

    You hate immigrants making a better life for themselves. You hate religious freedom. You hate common sense.

  • No, that is what you have been doing. Cherry picking, ignoring reality, repeating garbage in SERVICE OF TERRORISTS

    Even the article here makes your claims look like stupid hateful garbage.

    You didn’t even read the link I had. From a militaria website.

  • This spud is a religionist – repeats ad nauseum and continues to use his limited data as tho it were some sort of holy book….and imperils our society with this rubbish.
    There is nothing to respect in Islam, or any controlling religions and their fake gods!

  • Funny. Everyone else here, who doesn’t have a troll account, can tell you otherwise.

    I am not pro religion at all. I am just anti-bigot and pro freedom. I have no problem calling out people who use religion as an excuse to act badly. I have seen plenty of Bible thumping wingnuts giving me the identical spiel as you.

    Simultaneously with you I had a conversation with another bigot on this site accusing me of being an evil religion hater. Go figure.

    My posting history is an open book. Yours however…????

  • So, you are just a self-appointed judge for everyone but yourself!!! sounds like childish arrogance that you think that you are a level above all….
    Bugger off then; my fight is with the liars and child-abusers of religions — don’t defend them with me.
    Done here…

  • Whatever.

    I was not the one making wild ridiculous bigoted terrorist enabling generalizations of 1.2 billion people.

    Plus I love hearing the various excuses you haters have for why various American Muslim communities are so peaceable and well off. It gets so silly.

    To quote Poet Laureate Mr. Vincent Neil,
    Don’t go away mad, just go away.

ADVERTISEMENTs